Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014 Day: 9

1. Freedom Movement 1.1 Muslim League (1906) In December, 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk at Dacca. It was the results of the British policy of divide and rule along with the parochial vision of some Muslim elitist leaders. The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement and demanded special safeguards for its community and a separate electorate of Muslims. However, for sometime the leadership of …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014 Day: 8

1. Formation of Congress and its moderate phase The Indian National Congress was not the first organization that was formed in India. From the mid 19th century there were many organizations which took up the political agenda. However, all the predecessors of the Indian National Congress were the regional organization and lacked the pan India orientation. Some of the organizations that were the predecessors of Indian National Congress were as follows: 1.1 Formation of Congress • The Indian National Union was formed in 1884 …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014 Day: 7

1. The revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark in the history of India. As per the British historians it was the “Sepoy Mutiny”, however according to Indian scholars it was the “First war of independence”. 1.1 Causes of the Revolt The revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economic, socio-religious and military causes. Political The old aristocracy was alienated by British Raj on various pretexts. This alienation reached at its apex level during the reign of Lord Dalhausie. He …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014 Day: 6

1. Advent of Europeans Portuguese • The Cape route was discovered from Europe to India by Vasco da Gama. He reached the port of Calicut on May 17, 1498 and was received by the Hindu ruler of Calicut (known by the title of Zamorin). • Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it. • Francisco de Almeida was the first governor of Portuguese. Almeida (1505-09) introduced ‘the policy of Blue water’. • Alfonso d ‘Albuquerque was the second governor …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 5

1. Bhakti movement • Different religious philosophies have given various ways to achieve god or attain salvation. For example Vedic religion was based on sacrifices, Upanishads gave prominence to knowledge, Buddhism has given “eight fold path” to attain nirvana likewise Jainism suggests rigorous penances to attain salvation. • Bhakti movement was based on the doctrine of “love, devotion and absolute surrender” before God • Bhakti movement started from South India in the 7th century and it gain prominence in North India in 13th …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 4

1. Mughal period Babur • The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by Babur in 1526. • According to famous historian Lavepool, Babur was just a soldier of fortune and not an empire builder. • He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother). • Babur was invited by Daulat Kahna Lodi and Alam Khan Lodi against Ibrahim Lodi • Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 3

1. Early Medieval Age (800-1200 A.D.) After the death of Harshavardhan, the political power in North India got distributed among various dynasties. The tendencies of feudalism and decentralization became the main feature of the polity during this period. After Harsha, various Rajputas clans ruled over the northern part of the country. Rajputs There are different theories about the origin of Rajputs. The following are the various theories related to the origin of Rajputs: • According to one view the Rajputs were descendent of Sakas. • …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 2

1. Post Mauryan period After the decline of Mauryas, the regional kingdoms were formed. Unlike Mauryas none of these regional kingdoms could extend their political authority over the large area equivalent to that of Mauryan Empire. Thus with the downfall of Mauryas their great empire witnessed rise of multiple regional kingdoms. The important regional kingdoms and their area of influence were as: (i) Sunga dynasty ruled from Videsha in Madhya Pradesh (ii) The Kavanas ruled from Patliputra (iii) The Indo-Greek rulers ruled over the …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 1 – Ancient History

1. Indus Valley Civilization (2550-1800 BC) The Indus Valley Civilization (2550-1800 B.C.) represents the Bronze Age culture. There were certain remarkable features present in the civilization which made it technologically far superior as compared to the cultures which flourished after the decline of this civilization. These remarkable features were: • Highly developed trade • Presence of some urban sites • Highly efficient town planning • Presence of buildings made of bricks • Use of Bronze • The ability to read and write and existence of script • Cosmopolitan …

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