IAS Prelims 2014 Solution SET – A

1. What are the significance of a practical approach to sugarcane production known as ‘Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative? 1.) Seed cost is very low in this compared to the conventional metod of cultivation. 2.) Drip irrigation can be practiced very effectively in this. 3.) There is no application of chemical/inorganic fertilizers at all in this. 4.) The scope for intercropping is morein this comparedto the conventional method of cultivation. Select the correct answer using the code given below. (a) 1 and 3 …

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Rainfall Types of Rainfall. There are three major types of rainfall. 1. Convectional rainfall. This type of rainfall is most common in regions that are intensely heated, either during the day, as in the tropics, or in the summer, as in temperate interiors. When the earth’s surface is heated by conduction, moisture-laden vapour rises because heated air always expands, and becomes lighter. Air rises in a convection current after a prolonged period of intense heating. In ascending, its water vapour condenses into …

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Islands and Coral Reefs An island is a piece of land surrounded on all sides by water. It may occur individually or in a group, in open oceans or seas. Smaller ones of only local significance are found even in lakes and rivers. Generally speaking all islands may be grouped under the following types. 1. Continental islands. These islands were formerly, part of the mainland and are now detached from the continent. They may be separated by a shallow lagoon or a deep …

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Coastal Landforms The Action of Waves, Tides and Currents The coastline, under the constant action of the waves, tides and currents, is undergoing changes from day to day. On calm days, when winds are slight, waves do little damage to the shoreline and may instead help to build up beaches and other depositional features. It is in storms that the ravages of the waves reach their greatest magnitude. The average pressure of Atlantic waves on adjacent coasts is about 600 lb. per …

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The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates Distribution Deserts are regions of scanty rainfall which may be hot like the hot deserts of the Saharan type; or temperate as are the mid-latitude deserts like the Gobi. The aridity of the hot deserts is mainly due to the effects of off-shore Trade Winds, hence they are also called Trade Wind Deserts. The temperate deserts are rainless because of their interior location in the temperate latitudes, well away from the rain-bearing winds. The major jot …

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The Savanna or Sudan Climate Distribution The Savanna or Sudan Climate is a transitional type of climate found between the equatorial forests and the trade wind hot deserts. It is confined within the tropics and is best developed in the Sudan where the dry and wet seasons are most distinct, hence its name the Sudan Climate. The belt includes West African Sudan, and then curves southwards into East Africa and southern Africa north of the Tropic of Capricorn. In South America, there …

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1. The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate Distribution The equatorial, hot, wet climate is found between 5degree and 10degree north and south of the equator. Its greatest extent is found in the lowlands of the Amazon, the Congo, Malaysia and the East Indies. Further away from the equator, the influence of the on-shore Trade Winds, gives rise to a modified type of equatorial climate with monsoonal influence. Within the tropics, the equatorial highlands have a distinctively cooler climate, modified by altitude, such as …

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The Classification of Rocks The earth’s crust is made up of various types of rocks, differing from one another in texture, structure, colour, permeability, mode of occurrence and degree of resistance to denudation. A knowledge of these rocks is of paramount importance to geologists, who study the composition and physical history of the earth, but the geographer, too, needs a basic knowledge of the most common rocks and their relationship with landforms. Rocks also form the basis for soil, and determine …

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The Relief of the Ocean The ocean basins are in many ways similar to the land surface. There are submarine ridges, plateaux, canyons, plains and trenches. A section drawn across an ocean illustrates the typical submarine relief features. 1. The continental shelf. This is, in fact, the seaward extension of the continent from the shoreline to the continental edge marked, approximately, by the 100 fathom (600 feet) isobaths (isobaths are contours marking depths below sea level). The continental shelf is thus a …

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The Distribution of Volcanoes in the World Volcanoes are located in a fairly clearly-defined pattern around the world, closely related to regions that have been intensely folded or faulted. There are well over 500 active volcanoes and thousands of dormant and extinct ones. They occur along coastal mountain ranges, as off-shore islands and in the midst of oceans, but there are few in the interiors of continents. The greatest concentration is probably that in the Circum-Pacific region, popularly termed the ‘Pacific …

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PREFACE The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003 and the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Rules, 2004 made under Section 8 of the Act have come into force with effect from 5th July, 2004. In sync with the changed Macro-economic circumstances after Global Financial Crisis, the FRBM (Amendment) Act, 2012 was passed by the Parliament and got the assent of the President of India on 28.05.2012. Accordingly, revised argets were set for various Fiscal Indicators. New Rules under the Amended FRBM Act, 2012 were notified …

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Highlights of Plan 2014-2015 Government restructured the Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) from BE 2014-15 (Plan). Accordingly, 126 CSS have been restructured in 66 schemes which include 17 flagship programmes. In BE 2014-15, funds have been provided under these schemes as Additional Central Assistance to State Plan. A much higher allocation of 3,38,408 crore in State Plan 2014-15 against BE 2013-14 of 1,36,254 crore reflects this change. (in Crore) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme 34000 for providing a legal guarantee of 100 …

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Key Features of Budget 2014-2015 THE CURRENT ECONOMIC SITUATION AND THE CHALLENGES Decisive vote for change represents the desire of the people to grow, free themselves from the curse of poverty and use the opportunity provided by the society. Country in no mood to suffer unemployment, inadequate basic amenities, lack of infrastructure and apathetic governance. Challenging situation due to Sub five per cent growth and double digit inflation. Continued slow-down in many emerging economies a threat to sustained global recovery. Recovery seen with the growth …

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1. Hydrosphere Hydrosphere refers to the mass of water that covers about 71% of the earth’s surface. It is the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. Oceans and seas, collectively called the world ocean, contribute about 97% of the total water on the earth. The majority of fresh water on the earth surface is in the form of ice sheets. Oceans of the world • The earth’s surface is divided into five oceans • The boundaries …

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1. Continents 1.1 Asia 1.2 Africa 1.3 North America 1.4 South America 1.5 Europe 1.5 Australia 2. Lithosphere Lithosphere refers to the solid outer shell of the earth. The name is derived from Greek work “lithos” meaning rocky. Lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The Lithosphere (or land) covers two-sevenths or 29.22% of the total surface area of the earth. The earth consists of three layers namely: I. Crust (the outermost layer) II. Mantle (the intermediary layer) III. Core …

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1. Various Commissions and Councils 1.1 Finance Commission The Finance Commission of India came into existence in 1951. It was established under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution by the President of India. It was formed to define the financial relations between the centre and the state. Functions of the Finance Commission 1. Distribution of net proceeds of taxes between Centre and the States, to be divided as per their respective contributions to the taxes. 2. Determine factors governing Grants-in Aid to the states and …

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1. Types of Bills The four kinds of bills mentioned in the Constitution are: • Ordinary Bill • Money Bill • Financial Bill • Constitutional Amendment Bill 1.1 Ordinary Bill Any bill other than Money, Financial or Constitution Amendment bill is called an Ordinary bill. It can be introduced in either Houses of the Parliament. It does not need the recommendation of the President for its introduction in Parliament (except a bill under article 3). It is passed by a simple majority by both the Houses. They enjoy equal …

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1. Motions in Parliament 1.1 Motions in Parliament (1) Private Member’s business Every member who is not a Minister is called a Private Member. The Private Member’s business includes Private Member’s Bills and Private Member’s Resolutions. The period of notice for introduction of Bill is one month unless the Presiding officer allows introduction at a shorter notice. (2) Question Hour Normally, the first hour of the business of a House everyday is devoted to questions and is called Question Hour (11:00 AM to 12:00 Noon). (3) …

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1. Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal. According to the Constitution of India, the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court and guardian of the Constitution. Composition of Supreme Court Under Article 124(1) the constitution originally provided for 1 Chief Justice of India and not more than 6 other judges. The constitution authorizes the Parliament to provide by law in fixing the Strength of the Supreme …

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1. Emergency provisions in India Emergency provisions are adopted in India from Weimar Constitution of Germany which existed from 1919-1933 between the two World Wars. In Indian constitution there are three kind of emergency provisions: (1) Article 352 – National Emergency (2) Article 356 – President’s Rule (3) Article 360 – Financial Emergency 1.1 National Emergency (Article 352) If the President is satisfied that there exist a grave emergency whether due to war or external aggression or armed rebellion, then President can proclaim emergency to that effect. …

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1. Citizenship A citizen is a person who enjoys full membership of the community or State in which he lives or ordinarily lives. In India, while all Rights are available to citizens, aliens do not enjoy the following rights:- (1) Article 15 – The right not to be discriminated on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. (2) Article 16 – The right to equality of opportunity in the matter of public employment. (3) Article 19 – Six rights to freedom …

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1. Fundamental rights A fundamental right is defined as an interest protected by the superior or basic law of the land. The inclusion of Fundamental Rights in the Constitution provide these rights a sanctified place that prohibits unreasonable interference of State in their exercise and also prevent the legislature and the executive from becoming arbitrary or authoritarian. Thus, these rights act as limitations on the State. 1.1 The nature of fundamental rights (1) They are enjoyed by the individual. (2) They are justice able …

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1. Indian federalism Federation is the existence of dual polity. There are two governments in existence- e.g. Government of Federation (in India Union Government) and Government of Unit (in India- State Government). These two sets of Government do not subordinate with each other. They cooperate with each other and are independent to each other. Indian Constitution resembles a federal constitution but in essence it is not a federal constitution. The unique feature of Indian constitution is the presence of features which are …

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1. Local government 1.1 Panchyati Raj Institutions Part IX of the Constitution talks about a three-tier system of Panchayats namely: 1. Gram Panchayat at the village level 2. Panchayat Samiti at the block level 3. Zila Parishad at the district level Village level • Gram Sabha consists of all the adults residing within the jurisdiction of the Panchayat. • The Panchayat is accountable for all its actions to the Gram Sabha, the general body of villagers. • The Panchayat consists of the elected representatives of the people through direct …

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1. The State Legislature 1.1 Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the state legislature in the different states and for the two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry. Members of a Vidhan Sabha are direct representatives of the people of the particular state as they are directly elected by the adult suffrage. Each Vidhan Sabha is formed for a five year term after which all seats are up for election. The maximum …

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1. Climate Change Climate change is but one component of global environmental change that poses widespread risks to human health and well-being. Among the other aspects of global environmental change are ecosystem degradation and land use change, petroleum depletion, urban sprawl and water scarcity. Thus, although many equate climate change alone with the broader challenge of global environmental change, this approach is too limited. In addition, climate change risks will emerge in the context of—and very likely synergistically with—these other drivers …

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1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT A Brief History of Sustainable Development The Sustainability Reporting Program works from a definition of sustainability that sees human activites as part of and dependent upon the natural world. In scientific terms, the human ecosystem, including the communities we build, is a subset of the larger ecosystem of the Earth. Sustainability is about meeting basic human needs and wants. People value their health and that of their children, economic security and happiness. These are primary elements in our quality of …

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1. BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is the diversity of different species together with genetic variation within each species in a given area. United nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defines it as the totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region. In simple words biodiversity is the variety of genes, species and ecosystems in a given region at a given time. Based on the elements of biodiversity it is divided into the following types: 1.) Genetic Diversity: Genetic diversity is diversity of genes within a species …

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1. Ecology and Environment 1.1 Ecosystem An ecosystem is a fundamental functional unit of ecological study. An ecosystem is a system – ecological system – in which organisms interact with each other and with their environment in a given unit of area of unit – time. In other words an ecosystem is a biotic community together with its physical environment considered as an integrated unit. Implied within the definition is the concept of a structural and functional unit, unified through life processes. An …

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1. Freedom Movement 1.1 Muslim League (1906) In December, 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk at Dacca. It was the results of the British policy of divide and rule along with the parochial vision of some Muslim elitist leaders. The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement and demanded special safeguards for its community and a separate electorate of Muslims. However, for sometime the leadership of …

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1. Formation of Congress and its moderate phase The Indian National Congress was not the first organization that was formed in India. From the mid 19th century there were many organizations which took up the political agenda. However, all the predecessors of the Indian National Congress were the regional organization and lacked the pan India orientation. Some of the organizations that were the predecessors of Indian National Congress were as follows: 1.1 Formation of Congress • The Indian National Union was formed in 1884 …

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1. The revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark in the history of India. As per the British historians it was the “Sepoy Mutiny”, however according to Indian scholars it was the “First war of independence”. 1.1 Causes of the Revolt The revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economic, socio-religious and military causes. Political The old aristocracy was alienated by British Raj on various pretexts. This alienation reached at its apex level during the reign of Lord Dalhausie. He …

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1. Advent of Europeans Portuguese • The Cape route was discovered from Europe to India by Vasco da Gama. He reached the port of Calicut on May 17, 1498 and was received by the Hindu ruler of Calicut (known by the title of Zamorin). • Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it. • Francisco de Almeida was the first governor of Portuguese. Almeida (1505-09) introduced ‘the policy of Blue water’. • Alfonso d ‘Albuquerque was the second governor …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 5

1. Bhakti movement • Different religious philosophies have given various ways to achieve god or attain salvation. For example Vedic religion was based on sacrifices, Upanishads gave prominence to knowledge, Buddhism has given “eight fold path” to attain nirvana likewise Jainism suggests rigorous penances to attain salvation. • Bhakti movement was based on the doctrine of “love, devotion and absolute surrender” before God • Bhakti movement started from South India in the 7th century and it gain prominence in North India in 13th …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 4

1. Mughal period Babur • The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by Babur in 1526. • According to famous historian Lavepool, Babur was just a soldier of fortune and not an empire builder. • He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother). • Babur was invited by Daulat Kahna Lodi and Alam Khan Lodi against Ibrahim Lodi • Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 3

1. Early Medieval Age (800-1200 A.D.) After the death of Harshavardhan, the political power in North India got distributed among various dynasties. The tendencies of feudalism and decentralization became the main feature of the polity during this period. After Harsha, various Rajputas clans ruled over the northern part of the country. Rajputs There are different theories about the origin of Rajputs. The following are the various theories related to the origin of Rajputs: • According to one view the Rajputs were descendent of Sakas. • …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 2

1. Post Mauryan period After the decline of Mauryas, the regional kingdoms were formed. Unlike Mauryas none of these regional kingdoms could extend their political authority over the large area equivalent to that of Mauryan Empire. Thus with the downfall of Mauryas their great empire witnessed rise of multiple regional kingdoms. The important regional kingdoms and their area of influence were as: (i) Sunga dynasty ruled from Videsha in Madhya Pradesh (ii) The Kavanas ruled from Patliputra (iii) The Indo-Greek rulers ruled over the …

Final Countdown for IAS Prelims 2014: Day 1 – Ancient History

1. Indus Valley Civilization (2550-1800 BC) The Indus Valley Civilization (2550-1800 B.C.) represents the Bronze Age culture. There were certain remarkable features present in the civilization which made it technologically far superior as compared to the cultures which flourished after the decline of this civilization. These remarkable features were: • Highly developed trade • Presence of some urban sites • Highly efficient town planning • Presence of buildings made of bricks • Use of Bronze • The ability to read and write and existence of script • Cosmopolitan …

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